1. China striving to be a powerful nation with scientific capability

In October 2005, China successfully launched its second manned spacecraft, the Shenzhou-6. Chinese space development is being advanced by the military, while related information, including the budget, is not disclosed. Former President Jiang Zemin, who named the spacecraft, said that it held "key significance in the modernization of national defense" at the launch of the Shenzhou-3 in March 2002, indicating that the objective of the space development program was improvement of the nation's military capability. Many technologies utilized for rocket development have direct potential to use for missiles as well, and in fact space development is inextricably linked to missile development. This fact has caused great concern about the development of military technologies under the cover of space development.
In September 1992, the Chinese government distributed the Chinese Communist Party Central Directive No. 7 to all provincial and military officials, calling for a variety of measures including stepping up the activities to acquire information from outside China. It is believed that active information collection as described in that Directive continues at this time. At the 5th Plenum, 16th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in October 2005, a "Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development" was adopted, positioning the development of scientific and technical education as the decisive element in enhancing international competitiveness, and aiming to be a powerful nation with high level of scientific capability.

2. Active Chinese operations in various ways against Japan

For achievement of establishing itself as a powerful nation founded on science, China recognizes a need for the transfer of science and technology from Japan is essential, and toward that end dispatches a large number of scholars, engineers, students, missions and others to Japan. Many of these people are thought to be involved in the diverse information-gathering activities. The Chinese citizens who have entered Japan for this purpose, certain members of the Chinese Embassy in Japan and other individuals are engaged in a variety of operations aimed at Japanese engineers with the objective of increasing the scope of technical transfers from Japan to China.
Chinese information-gathering activities are extremely skilled, and because in many cases a large number of Chinese collect individually fragmentary and detailed information, it is often difficult to spot their ongoing information-gathering activities.
Japanese police are working to collect information related to their illegal activities and to be tough on them.

The Launch of the Shenzhou-6 (Photo: Jiji Press)

Directive No. 7, Calling for the Acquisition of Advanced Technology (Photo: Kyodo Press)

A portion of various operations has been become clear through arrests made in connection with the cases of Wang Yang-Ran and the Yokota Air Base Chinese-Soviet Espionage.

2-1 The Case of Wang Yang-Ran (MPD, 1976)
In about 1971, Wang Yang-Ran, a Chinese citizen living in Hong Kong who managed three trading firms, was pressured by a Chinese intelligence operative to gather military and industrial technology and other information from Japan, in return for being allowed to continue trade with China. The operative allegedly said that Chinese living in Hong Kong and involved in trade with China have an obligation to cooperate in the improvement of the homeland and national defense. Wang visited Japan many times after that point, apparently for trade-related reasons, and utilized a large number of Japanese sympathizers from the residence of his common-law wife to gather a wide range of information including maps of the border between the former Soviet Union and China and other information related to the former Soviet Union, military information on foreign aircraft engines and other items, and information related to the politics, economy and industrial technology of Japan.

2-2 The Case of Yokota Air Base Chinese-Soviet Espionage (MPD, 1987)
A Chinese man pressured by an intelligence operative of the former Soviet Embassy in Japan, and executives of a pro-China organization in Japan pressured by a Chinese corporation, in cooperation with staff working at the U.S. Yokota Air Base in Japan, military affairs commentators and other person, obtained copies of technical orders and other materials related to the U.S. Air Force in Japan over a period of eight years, selling them for large sums of reward to the former Soviet Union and China. The executives of the pro-China organization were asked by the Chinese man to buy his copies of the technical orders, and gave a list of needed technical orders to staff of the Chinese corporation during a visit to China. From about 1980, they sold the technical orders purchased from the Chinese man to purchasers in China.
A timetable for espionage-related radio communication, microfilm and other materials were detected in the residence of the Chinese man.

Confiscated Microfilm

A Chinese Navy Vessel Firing a Missile During Joint Chinese-Russian Military Maneuvers
(Photo: Jiji Press)